Source:Non-psychotropic plant cannabinoids: new therapeutic opportunities from an ancient herb: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences (


What are cannabinoids?

The term “cannabinoid” refers to one of a number of chemical compounds found in the cannabis plant. When you ingest, smoke, vapeor topically apply cannabis, these are the chemicals that interact with cells in your body to produce medical benefits.

Cannabinoids are agonists that bind to special receptors on your cells, called cannabinoid receptors. Certain receptors are heavily concentrated in the central nervous system while others are found in almost every organ of your body. Cannabinoid receptors are also found in skin, digestive tract, and even in the reproductive organs.

You can think of agonists as keys and cannabinoid receptors as locks. By consuming cannabis, you are taking in agonists that interact with different locks on cells in the body. Together, these cell receptors make up a larger system called the Endocannabinoid system (ECS).

The ECS is a vast network of cell receptor proteins with many functions. Some describe the ECS as the greatest neurotransmitter system in the body. It “lends a helping hand” in seemingly just about everything, including:

  • mood
  • memory
  • motor control
  • immune function
  • reproduction
  • pain perception
  • appetite
  • sleep
  • bone development

Four primary purposes of the ECS include:

  • neuroprotection,
  • stress recovery,
  • immune balance, and
  • homeostatic regulation system: a system that creates optimum energy balance in the body.

Primary cannabinoids in cannabis are:

1. THC

THC is the abbreviation for Delta(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol. As most cannabis lovers probably know, THC is the primary psychoactive compound in the cannabis plant. It’s what creates the high feeling marijuana has become so famous for.

The list of medical usages for THC,discovered to date, include:

  • Alzheimer’s Disease
  • Neuropathic pain
  • Multiple Sclerosis
  • Parkinson’s Disease
  • PTSD
  • Cancer
  • Crohn’s Disease

2. CBD

The most predominant cannabinoid present in the trichomes of the female cannabis plant is CBD.
CBD is short for Cannabidiol, and it is the second most famous cannabinoid, but giving the longer knowing THC, a run for it’s money. Like THC, the list of medical benefits of this cannabinoid just keeps getting longer. Nevertheless, unlike THC, CBD is non-psychoactive. It’s also now legal in mostcountries around the world, including all EU member states.


What is CBD used to treat?

The therapeutic value of CBD is almost unbelievable. For decades, outdated laws have banned a plant (cannabis) that produces what may become one of the most important medicines for modern disease - CBD.

CBD is polypharmacological, meaning that it can affect multiple different pathways in the body at once. This makes it quite difficult to study, as it is not easy to tell what effect these different interactions have upon each other. However, many medical cannabis patients find relief with this calming cannabinoid.

Here are a few of the common reasons patients use CBD:

  • Epilepsy including Dravet’s Syndrome
  • Depression
  • Anxiety
  • Chronic and neuropathic pain
  • Diabetes
  • ADHD
  • Autistic Spectrum Disorder
  • Cancer
  • Lupus
  • Motor disorders
  • Nicotine addiction
  • Parkinson’s Disease
  • Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
  • Osteoporosis

CBD is often described as being all relaxation without intoxication.

Preclinical trials over the past four decades have found that Cannabidiol shows promise as an:

  • anti-inflammatory
  • antioxidant
  • neuroprotectant
  • anxiolytic
  • antidepressant
  • analgesic
  • anti-tumoral agent
  • anti-psychotic

CBD is often used by patients in the form of oil. Patients with more chronic conditions such as cancer and epilepsy often use medical cannabis oil extracted from high-CBD varieties of cannabis such as ACDC.

How does CBD work?

CBD seems to tap into the body’s balancing system to produce its therapeutic effects. CBD is able to interact with cells in our bodies because the molecule has a similar composition to chemicals that the human body produces naturally, called endocannabinoids.

Endo means inside and cannabinoid refers to action on cannabinoid receptors. In contrast, the cannabinoids in the cannabis plant are technically called phytocannabinoids.CBD is a phytocannabinoid with some serious life-saving potential.

There is still much to learn about CBD. However, scientists have discovered that the compound does a lot more than engage cannabinoid receptors. The effects of CBD in the body are broad and far-reaching.

Thus far, this cannabinoid is known to also directly or indirectly affect the following:

  • Vanilloid receptors (important for pain modulation)
  • Adenosine receptors (important for the sleep-wake cycle)
  • Serotonin receptors (important for mood and stress management)

Some rodent studies suggest that CBD may also work by blocking a particular fatty acid known as fatty-acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). The enzyme that’s responsible for breaking down the naturally occurring endocannabinoid anandamide in your body.Anandamide is also known as the “bliss molecule” or the human THC. It helps regulate basic functions like pleasure and reward, appetite, ovulation, memory, sleep, and pain.

Whole plant medicine

While CBD is a powerful medicine on its own, it’s important to note that the compound’s effects are amplified when combined with other cannabinoids. One of the biggest debates surrounding CBD deals with the recent push toward “whole plant medicine.

The idea is that combinations of cannabinoids, like CBD and CBG, work together in synergy to produce certain therapeutic effects in the body. Read further down this text to discover more on whole plant medicine.

CBD Sources:

Cannabidiol use and effectiveness: real-world evidence from a Canadian medical cannabis clinic - PMC (

Cannabidiol (CBD) in Cancer Management - PMC (

3. CBG

CBG is short for cannabigerol. This cannabinoid is found early on in the growth cycle of the cannabis plant, which makes it somewhat difficult to find in large quantities. CBG, however, is non-psychoactive. The medical potential of CBG makes it a prime target for research these days. Here’s what the science says so far:

Cannabigerol was another one of the cannabinoids tested on the MRSA virus in 2008. As far as antibiotic properties go, CBG was stronger than CBN and comparable to CBD. CBG is also known to be mildly anti-fungal. Research as early as 1982 found that isolated CBG is antimicrobial and kills various types of bacteria and fungi.

Possible Treatment for Psoriasis
This cannabinoid just-so-happens to be good for your skin. Not only does it help prevent the reddening of the skin, but it’s been shown to have therapeutic potential for skin conditions like Psoriasis.

Pain Reliever
CBG is reportedly a more potent pain reliever than THC.

Back in 1998, Korean researchers found that CBG was effective at slowing the growth of cancerous cells in the mouth. More recent research published in the British Journal of Pharmacology found that CBG also had mild anti-tumor effects in prostate cancer cells. The study focused on non-THC cannabinoids. While CBG did have an effect on tumor growth, it was CBD that really shined through as a potential treatment for prostate cancer.

Antidepressant & Mood-Stabilizer
As early as 1975, researchers found that CBG prevented the uptake of amino acids that help regulate mood. The amino acid in question, GABA, was better regulated by CBG than THC or CBD.

CBG Sources:

Pharmacological Aspects and Biological Effects of Cannabigerol and Its Synthetic Derivatives - PMC (

The lesser known cannabinoids:

4. CBC

Also known as Cannabichromene, CBC is the third most common cannabinoid in the cannabis plant overall. In some strains, CBC may even take dominance over CBD. Like CBD, cannabichromene is non-psychoactive. Here’s what you can expect from CBC:

CBC is effective at fighting inflammation on its own, but 2010 research has found that it’s even more effective when combined with THC. This finding helps support the idea that cannabinoids work synergistically with each other. While scientists have been successful at finding and isolating over 100 different compounds in the cannabis plant, the strongest medicine is created when different components work in harmony with one another.

When coupled with THC and other cannabinoids, CBC has also shown some promise in fighting breast cancer. The anti-tumor effects of CBC alone are not quite as exciting as the potential of CBD, THC, and CBG, but together they make for one powerful tumor-fighting combination.

In the science world, there’s a sure-fire way to test if a mouse is depressed. You suspend it by its tail and watch to see how much it struggles to get away. The more it struggles, the more elevated the mood of the mouse. This test is known as the Tail Suspension Test (TST). Researchers from the University of Mississippi found that mice treated with CBC struggled significantly more than mice treated with other cannabinoids.

The amount the mice struggled also depended on how much CBC they were given. Mice given 40mg of CBC struggled less than mice that were given 80mgs.

In a review of cannabinoid literature, author Ethan Russo reported that CBC was mildly anti-fungal.

Encourages Brain Growth
A 2013 study found that CBC may actually help you grow new brain cells. Regardless of your age, cells in certain portions of your brain continue to grow through a process known as neurogenesis. The portions affected are responsible for memory and learning. You run the risk of developing diseases like Alzheimers when your brain stops developing new cells in these areas.

5. CBN

Short for Cannabinol, this cannabinoid emerges when you’re dried flower has gone a bit stale. THCa breaks down into this compound over time. If you leave some bud out sitting out in the open air for too long, you’ll eventually have a product with larger amounts of CBN. CBN has been found to have these medical properties:

Appetite Stimulant
Researchers out of the UK found that CBN stimulated appetite in rats. During the testing period, rats treated with CBN ate significantly more than rats treated with cannabinoids CBD and CBG.

CBN was one of the three cannabinoids identified by Italian researchers as being effective against antibiotic resistant MRSA infections.

Potential Medication for ALS Patients
A study conducted in 2005 found that CBN delayed symptom onset in mice that were genetically designed to have a rodent version of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). These findings show that CBN may be effective at easing symptoms for patients with degenerative, motor neural diseases.

Pain reliever
As early as 2002, Swedish researchers found that cannabinol has strong pain-relieving effects. Interestingly enough, CBN and THC were the only cannabinoids that fought pain through the release of endorphins and by relaxing tense blood vessels.

Featuring strong anti-inflammatory properties, research from 2003 found that CBN stopped allergy-related asthma in mice. The cannabinoid achieved this by boosting the rodents’ immune systems and easing the inflammation associated with an asthma attack.

Berkeley-based Steep Hill Labs has claimed that CBN may be the most sedative of all of the cannabinoids. The cannabis testing and research laboratory stated that a good dose of CBN is equivalent to 2.5 – 5mg of pharmaceutical sedative diazepam, also known as Valium.

Potential Medication for Glaucoma
Along with THC, CBN was effective at lowering the ocular pressure which produces blindness in glaucoma patients. This cannabinoid’s ability to decrease ocular hypertension may also point medical professionals in the right direction when it comes to understanding cannabis effect on blood pressure overall.

6. THCv

Short for tetrahydrocannabivarin, THCv is another cannabinoid that works in tandem with THC. Some studies cite that THCv has about 20% the psychoactive capacity as THC, but recent research has shown that THCv actually mitigates some of the negative psychoactive impacts of THC. THCv’s medical properties include:

Researchers out of Berkshire, UK put the anti-epileptic properties of THCv to the test in rat brains. First, they tested whether or not THCv stopped seizure-like activity in brain slices. THCv reduced the amount of convulsive “bursts” observed when the brain segments were treated with the compound before seizures were induced. They then tested whether or not the cannabinoid stopped convulsions in adult rats. They found that THCv significantly reduced seizure incidence.

Promotes Weight Loss
There have been several studies that highlight the appetite suppressant effects of CBD, but more and more research is coming out linking THCv and weight loss. A paper published last year by C4 Laboratories in Arizona cited evidence that THCv decreased body fat and boosted energy metabolism in mice.

7. CBDv

CBDv is short for cannabidivarin. So far, not a whole lot of research has been done on CBDv. But, what little is out there looks extremely promising. CBDv is very similar to CBD, but it is a slightly degraded version of the cannabinoid. This changes the shape of the molecule in small but significant ways. These are a couple of the benefits CBDv can provide:

Two separate studies isolated CBDv as a strong anticonvulsant. The first study published in 2012 found that this cannabinoid stopped seizures in mice and rats. The second study also looked at rats and confirmed the first study’s findings. Studies from 2014 and on continue to corroborate this information.

CBDv may also prove useful for patients with stomach or gastrointestinal issues. 2013 research out of the University of Ontario found that the compound is one hell of a nausea-fighter.

Scientists found that nauseated behavior was significantly reduced in rats treated with both CBDv and THCv.

8. Delta(8)-THC

Delta(8)-THC is less psychoactive than “regular” THC in adults. Some resources claim that Delta(8) may have neuroprotective and anti-anxiety properties, making it an interesting companion to the more notorious psychoactive. However, more research is needed to confirm just how this particular compound acts inside the body. Here are a couple of additional benefits you can expect from Delta(8)-THC:

Appetite Stimulator
An experiment on mice found that delta(8) increased the rodents’ appetite significantly more than delta(9).

Back in 1995, 8 children with cancer were treated with delta(8)-THC during the course of chemotherapy. The results of the study were quite interesting: while nausea and vomiting were reduced in all cases, delta(8)-THC also did not produce any psychoactive response in the children. Their ages were between 2 and 13-years-old.

9. Nutritional cannabinoids THCa and CBDa

THCa and CBDa are the compounds found it cannabis before it is decarboxylated. These cannabinoids are found in raw cannabis, and can be eaten as a nutritional supplement or applied topically. You cannot smoke or inhale THCa or CBDa. Once you take heat to these two acids, you convert them from an acid to forms that are slightly more broken down.

In the case of THCa is decarboxylated down to psychoactive THC. THCa on is not psychoactive until you apply heat.

Dr. William Courtney has spearheaded the raw cannabis movement. In his opinion, cannabis is a dietary necessity. He called it the superfood of all superfoods.

As per his medical expertise, raw cannabis has several properties as a nutritional supplement, just to name a few:

  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Antioxidant
  • Improved intestinal function
  • Improved neural function
  • Cancer and pre-cancerous detection

In case you haven’t noticed, this plant is a medicinal gold mine. The 10 cannabinoids outlined here are only the tip of the iceberg when it comes to marijuana research. In all, there are over 400 unique chemical compounds in the marijuana plant.

The individual compounds studied so far have not only wowed researchers with their medical potential, but the scientific community is further amazed by how these chemicals work together in harmony, paving the way to the above mentioned whole plant medicine.

ES (Éveil Santé) is the pioneer company dealing with exactly this idea.

Frequently asked questions (FAQs)

How do I choose the right product for me?

Consider factors like your reason for using cannabis products. Our bestseller "Premium 1500" is always a good choice.

If you need help of any sort, including finding the right product for your needs, please use the CONTACT form or send an email to:

Will your products get me high?

No, our products contain less than 0.2% THC. This low amount is not psychoactive and therefore will not produce a "high".

Is CBD addictive?

No, CBD is not addictive. It doesn't have the same psychoactive properties as THC, which is responsible for the "high" associated with cannabis.

What is the difference between CBD and THC?

CBD and THC are both cannabinoids found in cannabis. CBD is non-psychoactive and is associated with potential therapeutic effects, while THC is psychoactive.

Learn more about the different cannabinoids here: Cannabinoids?

What are possible benefits of using CBD products?

Preclinical trials over the past four decades have found that cannabidiol shows promise as an:

  • anti-inflammatory
  • antioxidant
  • neuroprotectant
  • anxiolytic
  • antidepressant
  • analgesic
  • anti-tumoral agent
  • anti-psychotic

CBD is often used in the form of oil. People with more chronic conditions such as cancer and epilepsy often use medical cannabis oil extracted from high-CBD varieties of cannabis such as ACDC.

Visit our cannabinoids page for more detailed information: Cannabinoids?

Are there any side effects of using CBD?

CBD is generally well-tolerated, but some users may experience mild side effects. Consult a healthcare professional if you have concerns.